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Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units. The Navy 10, personnel, of which 1, are marines has five frigates, two submarines, and 28 patrol and auxiliary vessels. In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard, a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.

Elipse. Revista literária galego-portuguesa. núm. 1. by Círculo Edições (eBook) — Lulu AU

This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor. After the turmoil of the revolution and the PREC period, Portugal has been trying to adapt itself to a changing modern global economy. Since the s, Portugal's economic development model has been slowly changing from one based on public consumption to one focused on exports, private investment, and development of the high-tech sector.

Business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear, cork of which Portugal is the world's leading producer ,[35] wood products and beverages. The districts of Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra, and Leiria are the biggest economic centres outside those two main metropolitan areas. Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.

Portugal is a significant European minerals producer and is ranked among Europe's leading copper producers.

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It is also a noted producer of tin, tungsten and uranium. However, the country lacks hydrocarbon exploration potential, as well as iron, aluminium and coal deposits, a feature that has hindered its mining and metallurgy sector's development. The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most noted Portuguese mines in operation.

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Volkswagen Group's AutoEuropa motor vehicle assembly plant in Palmela is among the largest foreign direct investment projects in Portugal. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries like aerospace, biotechnology and information technology, have been developed in several locations across the country. Since after the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon, Porto, Braga, Coimbra and Aveiro.

Oeiras Municipality, in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, is home of many of the headquarters of multinational companies operating in Portugal. Thermal Power Plant in Carregado, near Lisbon. Travel and tourism continues to become extremely important for Portugal, with visitor numbers forecast to increase significantly over the next years. However, there is increasing competition from Eastern European destinations such as Croatia who offer similar attractions, which are often cheaper. While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, both the life and non-life sectors, overall, are estimated to be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.

The PSI is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. In December , ratings agency Standard and Poor's lowered its long-term credit assessment of Portugal to "negative" from "stable," voicing pessimism on the country's structural weaknesses in the economy and weak competitiveness that would hamper growth and the capacity to strengthen its public finances and reduce debt. Some cases are well known and were widely reported in the media, such as the affairs in several municipalities involving local town hall officials and businesspersons, as well as a number of politicians with wider responsibilities and power.

This funded numerous ineffective and unnecessary external consultancy and advising committees and firms, allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works, inflated top management and head officers' bonuses and wages, causing a persistent and lasting recruitment policy that boosted the number of redundant public servants. The economy was also damaged by risky credit, public debt creation and mismanaged European structural and cohesion funds for almost four decades. Thus Portuguese convergence has been impressive, even though, consistent with its relatively low human-capital stock, the economy has specialised in low-tech production.

It was the third time that external financial aid was requested to the IMF — the first was in the late s following the Carnation Revolution. In October , Moody's Analytics downgraded nine Portuguese banks, blaming financial weakness. Officially, in the unemployment rate decreased to 7. As of March , the unemployment rate is at Lisbon is, after Barcelona, the European city which attracts the most tourists with seven million tourists occupying the city's hotels in , a number that grew Porto and Northern Portugal, especially the urban areas north of Douro River valley, was the tourist destination which grew most By the early s Portugal's fast economic growth with increasing consumption and purchase of new automobiles set the priority for improvements in transportation.

Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community, the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5. But, although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.


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In , Brisa, the highway concessionaire, was founded to handle the management of many of the regions motorways. On many highways, toll needs to be paid, see Via Verde.

Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover for many foreign airlines at several airports within the country. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Portugal, although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country. The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete, to replace Lisbon Portela Airport. A national railway system that extends throughout the continent and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal.

In the CP carried million passengers and 9,, t 9,, long tons; 10,, short tons of goods. In Porto, a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remain, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula. All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects. One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon, founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.

Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. The Lisbon Oceanarium — by the time of its opening, it was among the largest aquariums in the world.

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With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several[66] science parks across the country. Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support. Egas Moniz, a Portuguese physician who developed the cerebral angiography and leucotomy, received in the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine — he is the first Portuguese recipient of a Nobel Prize and the only in the sciences.

The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most costeffective renewable sources. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuel resources. But new programs combine wind and water: winddriven turbines pump water uphill at night, the most blustery period; then the water flows downhill by day, generating electricity, when consumer demand is highest.

The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity. This population has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history: a single religion Catholicism and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the Moors, Moriscos and Sephardi Jews.

The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.

It was the last western colonial European powers to give up its overseas territories among them Angola and Mozambique in , turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China at the end of Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry ,[79] has now become a country of net immigration,[80] and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.

An estimated , Portuguese returned to Portugal as the country's African possessions gained independence in Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese have also chosen Portugal as destination. Portugal's Romani population, estimated at about 40,,[81] offers another element of ethnic diversity. Most Romanis congregate with similar ethnic groups in the southern parts of the country and sell clothing and handicrafts in rural markets. Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation.

Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest, its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including the first university.

The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization, with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents. The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.

Portugal is a secular state: church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic, and later reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are: the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See, and the Religious Freedom Act. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia Spain and Northern Portugal, from the Galician-Portuguese language.

It is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire — In the present day, Portuguese is spoken as a native language on 4 different continents, with Brazil accounting for the largest number of native Portuguese speakers in any country.

These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region People's Republic of China , make up the Lusosphere, term derived from the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river. Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal. It retains fewer than 5, speakers in Portugal a number that can be up to 12, if counting second language speakers.

The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, till the 12th grade , and higher education university and polytechnic. In addition to being a key destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.

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The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto. Universities are usually organized into faculties. The University of Coimbra, built in , is one of the oldest in continuous operation in the world. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.


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